John Van Nortwick Papers, 1831-1890

Title

John Van Nortwick Papers, 1831-1890

Text

Van Nortwick, John (1809-1890)

 

Papers, 1831-1890

 

.84 linear feet (2 manuscript boxes)

 

An engineer and prominent pioneer settler of Batavia, Kane County, Illinois and the Fox River Valley, builder and owner of the first grist mill, owner of the pulp mill and founder and eventual sole owner of the paper company, all in Batavia and in 1848 appointed the chief engineer of the Chicago & Galena Railroad. Born inNew Yorkand educated at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, he worked for the public works program inNew York. He bought land inIllinoiswith other land speculators and in 1831 his father William, a contractor, came to Illinois to look at John’s investments. John remained in New York, but worked through his father with his business partners, and by 1836 they had started to build the dam on the Fox River and a mill. This mill became the greatest supplier of flour to the city of Chicago. In 1842 the partnership was dissolved and Van Nortwick, on his own, built the first grist mill in Batavia. The original town plat forBataviawas laid out in 1837 with the surveying done by John. He was also an owner of mills and water power property on the Fox River inWisconsin. In 1848, when he was appointed chief engineer on the Chicago & Galena Railroad, he finally moved toIllinois. After the move he was mostly involved in railroads, working on the construction of the Aurora Branch Railway and its extension to theMississippi, which became the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy. He was president of this railway during the Civil War. He was married to Patty Maria Mallory and they had four children, 2 boys and 2 girls.

 

Correspondence and diaries.  Typescript and original letters, 1831-1855, of John and his father and also Alanson House, a business partner. These letters discuss financial arrangements for the settlement of property, the construction of the dam on the river, the repair of the grist and the saw mills, and the legal and financial difficulties encountered in these projects. These letters give a small account of the economic history of the area. There is mention of many of the first settlers of Kane County and family news. The diaries of John Van Nortwick cover the years 1848-1853, 1871-1876, 1879-1881 and 1883-1890. The entries concern the weather, travel, business matters, expenses and people visited.

 

Access:            Open for Research

 

Acc. No.:         73-10

 

Processed by:  Laurel Bowen, 1984 and Connie Butts, April 2001

                                                            John Van Nortwick                                                     Page 2

                                                               Container List

 

Box     Folder

 

1          1          Correspondence, 1831-1836

            2          Correspondence, 1837-1839

            3          Correspondence, 1841

            4          Correspondence, 1842-1855

            5          Correspondence (typed transcripts), 1831-1835

            6          Correspondence (typed transcripts), 1836-1839

            7          Correspondence (typed transcripts), 1840-1841

            8          Correspondence (typed transcripts), 1842-1855

 

2          1          Diaries, 1848, 1849, 1850 [three items]

            2          Diaries, 1851, 1852, 1853 [three items]

            3          Diaries, 1871, 1872, 1873 [three items]

            4          Diaries, 1874, 1875, 1876 [three items]

            5          Diaries, 1879, 1880, 1881 [three items]

            6          Diaries, 1883, 1884, 1885 [three items]

            7          Diaries, 1886, 1887, 1888 [three items]

            8          Diaries, 1889, 1890 [two items]

                                                           

                                                            John Van Nortwick                                                     Page 3

                                                                  Microfilm

 

John Van Nortwick (1809-1890) Papers, 1828-1942

3 reels negative microfilm; positive atGreen Bay

(2 MS boxes originals)

 

(Biographical account is attached.)

 

Contents

 

Reel 1: Correspondence, 1831-1884; 1942 Letters are itemized on attached pages, which were duplicated from a list supplied by the donor. Folders appear in the following order on the film:

            “Old Van Nortwick History” (Materials appear in chronological order on the film, rather

   than following order on list)

            “John Van Nortwick’s letters to Patty Maria Mallory”

            12 miscellaneous Van Nortwick materials relating to railroads (not included on list)

            “Letters (principally between William and John Van Nortwick)”

 

Diaries of John Van Nortwick, 1848-1853; 1871-1876. Diaries include brief entries describing weather conditions, business transactions, and trips, with a monthly record of cash accounts at the end of each volume. (Continued on reel 2)

 

Reel 2: Diaries (Cont) 1879-1881, 1883-1890

Account Books, 1828-1850, January (Volumes 1-12) these miscellaneous account and memoranda books are mainly records of personal daily cash accounts of John Van Nortwick. In a few volumes accounts are arranged by individual, rather than by date, the rear, following the list of daily expenditures and receipts. The general account books have been placed in chronological order. In some cases there are gaps in the dates, while in other the dates may overlap from one volume to another. The volume number appearing on the film are arbitrary and for the purpose of this film only. A list itemizing these volumes appears following the list of letters. (Continued on Reel 3)

 

Reel 3: Account Books (cont) 1850, January 1870 (Volumes 13-29) William M. Van Nortwick Memoranda of stock assignments and real estate, 1870s–1890s (Volume 30)

 

Note: Consult card catalogue for typescript copies of William - John Van Nortwick correspondence appearing on Reel 1 and for Xerox copies of correspondence of Meredith Mallory, father-in-law of John Van Nortwick, which does not appear on this file.

 

Loaned for microfilming by William Van Nortwick,New YorkCity, through the courtesy of Mrs. John Strange, Appleton, Wisconsin 1964-1965

                                                           

                                                            John Van Nortwick                                                     Page 4

 

Folder – John Van Nortwick’s letters to Patty Maria Mallory

(Before marriage)

 

July 19, 1834               John in Clinton, New York      to Mari in Geneva, New York

April 20, 1835                         John in Clinton, New York      to “Cousin Maria” in Penn Yan, N

June 15, 1835              John in Clinton, New York      to Mari

November 7, 1835       John in Clinton, New York      to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

 

(After marriage, on February 11, 1836)

 

May 24, 1836              John in Utica                           to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

May 27, 1836              John in Clinton                                    to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

September 10, 1836     John in Utica                           to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

September 27, 1836     John in Clinton                                    to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

October 17, 1836         John in Clinton                                    to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

October 31, 1836         John in Clinton                                    to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

November 13, 1836     John in Clinton                                    to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

November 25, 1836     John in Clinton                                    to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

February 17, 1837       John in Fox River, Illinois       to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

April 29, ?                   John in Mt. Morris, New York             to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

March 31, 1846           John in Albany, New York      to Mari in Hammondsport, New York

July 13, 1846               receipt for furniture etc. shipped from Buffalo to Chicago for J.V.N.                                                             (probably for father, Wm. Van N.)

July 27, 1846               John in Albany                                    to Mari in Penn Yan, New York

January 23, 1848         John in New York City                        to Mari in Batavia, Illinois

February 20, 1848       John on trip                             to Mari in Batavia, Illinois

November 7, 1851*     John in ?                                  to Mari in Batavia, Illinois

March 6, 1854                         in New York                            to Mari in Batavia, Illinois

 

*This letter was written in 1848 – not 1851 M.S.

 

Folder – letters concerned with the History of Batavia Dam and Saw Mill

 

June 7, 1839                Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston County, New York

July 10, 1839               Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston County, New York

January 10, 1841         Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston County, New York

January 11, 1841         Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston County, New York

March 2, 1841                         Alanson House                        to J.V.N. At the Mansion House, Albany, New York

April 11, 1841                         Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

May 24, 1841              Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

June 7, 1841                Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

June 15, 1841              Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

July 11, 1841               Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

July 12, 1841               Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

November 7 & 8, 1841            Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

November 12, 1841     Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

November 17, 1841     Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

November 30, 1841     Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

July 16, 1841               Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

December 15, 1841     Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

                                                John Van Nortwick                                                                 Page 5

 

Folder – letters concerned with the History of Batavia Dam and Saw Mill

 

February 20, 1842       Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

February 11, 1842       Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

March 20, 1842           Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

April 4, 1842               Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Albany, New York

May 12, 1842              Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston County, New York

May 22, 1842              Alanson House                        to J.V.N., (place uncertain)

June & July 1842        Expenditures – Barnum Dow Mallory in Illinois

July 17, 1842               Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

August 19, 1842          Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

October 2, 1842           Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

November 20, 1842     Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

May 21, 1843              Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

June 30, 1844              Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

September 15, 1844     Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

January 24, 1849         Alanson House                        to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston, New York

       14th                      A. House (Rochester)  to J.V.N., Mt. Morris, Livingston

July 28, 1847               Memo of expenses from Illinois to New York

March 28, 1836           J.V.N. in Hammondsport, New York to Alanson House

 

(note there are 34 letters out 35, I omitted no. 12 on pg. 1)

 

Within this same folder are letters dated as follows and bound:

 

January 22, 1837

January 22, 1837

January 24, 1837

January 29, 1837

September 13, 1837

November 12, 1837

February 4, 1838

February 11, 1838

March 12, 1838

April 13, 1838

April 13, 1838

April 13, 1838

April 13, 1838

August 4, 1838

August 11, 1838

September 1838

August 2, 1834                                                           

December 26, 1838

January 18, 1839                                            

?

February 26, 1839

February 20, 1839

April 2, 1839

March 25, 1839

March 26, 1839

April 16, 1839

                                                John Van Nortwick                                                                 Page 6

 

Folder – letters concerned with the History of Batavia Dam and Saw Mill

 

March 30, 1839

April 10, 1839

March 25, 1839

May 11, 1839

 

Names in the above bound folder include: John Van Nortwick, William Van Nortwick, Charles Ballard, A. House, H. Boardman, S. Rogers, Margaret Van Nortwick Rockwell, James Rockwell, Smith Legg Mallory, G.R. Makepeace, Rachel Van Nortwick, and Benjamin Smith.

 

Folder – entitled “Old Van N. History”

 

Tied bundle of three pieces-Inventory of J.V.N. Estate

Letter to J.V.N. offer of appointment as first assistant engineer of Dry Dock, New York Navy Yard

November 8, 1846-letter from J.V.N. to Wm. Wright and Sec. of Navy accepting appointment under McAlpin

September 24, 1865-letter from William Mallory Van Nortwick to J.V.N.

April 15, 1865-letter to J.V.N.

May 1865 to May 1866-Internal Revenue License to W.V.N.

            November 12, 1864-letter to J.V.N., President of Burlington and Quincy from Chairman of State Democratic             Comm. in Illinois

June 13, 1864-letter to J.V.N. from W.V.N.

February 8, 1864-invitation to J.V.N. to meet in reference to arrangements for Democratic National Convention

October 6, 1856 – letter to J.V.N. from Pershing Connelly, Rock Island

November 19, 1855-letter to J.V.N. from gentlemen at Amboy with gift

September 3, 1855-letter to Road Companies of Town of Batavia from J.

June 24, 1854 – Batavia Institute, printed

November 10, 1852 – American Society of Civil Engineers, printed

February 14, 1848 – letter to J.V.N. from W.J. McAlpin

February 14, 1848 – letter to J.V.N. from W.J. McAlpin

February 11, 1848 - letter to Hon. D.S. Dickinson from T.M. Niven

July 20, 1847 - letter to J.V.N. from McAlpin etc., Brooklyn

December 17, 1847 – letter to J.V.N. from Varnum

June 17, 1847 – letter to J.V.N. from McAlpin (private)

January 23, 1868-letter to J.V.N. from Hall

February 1868 – sheet of inventory and estimated value of U.S.N.E.P

December 14, 1865 – letter to J.V.N. from W.M. Van N.

Bills

April 19, 1879 – letter to J.V.N. from Edward C. Lowell, House of Rep

November 9, 1882 – memorandum of agreement – vis. Batavia Paper Mfg. Co., Appleton Paper and Pulp                        Co. signed by J.M.N., J.S.V. witnessed by W.M. Van N.

            March 5, 1846 – letter to Hon. Geo. Bancroft, Sec. of Navy from Senate of State of N.Y. to appoint J.V.N.                  ass’t engineer on Dry Docks at Brooklyn

J.V.N.’s membership to Am. Soc. of Civil Eng. and Architects

Letter to John Van N. son of Wm. M. Van N. from WMAQ radio

Pass on Chicago Burlington R.R.

Clipping about “the Brig Pilgrim”

            February 1848-letter to Sec. of Navy from J.V.N. resigning position at Brooklyn to accept position as chief                engineer of Chicago Galena R.R.

Pass on Chicago and Galena R.R.

Invitation to meet Sec. of the Navy, November 30, 1847

                                                John Van Nortwick                                                                 Page 7

 

Folder – entitled “Old Van N. History”

 

Unsigned acceptance to Am Soc of Civil Eng. and Architects

Superior Facts Vol. 5, May 1932, No. 11

Pages from Kane County History – Pages 221-2, 225-6, 185-6, 189-1 and three pictures

            Report from Boarding School for Boys at New Canaan, Conn.-William Mallory Van N. and letter from him                  to parents 7 sheets, including front and back cover

April 10, 1884 – letter to J.V.M. from H.J. Rogers, Soc. Of Appleton Paper and Pulp Co. 2 pages

November 4, 1865 – letter to J.V.N. from S.M. Folson, Pres. Penn Steel

June 11, 1836 to John V. N. from W.E. Bouck

July 3, 1836 to John V.N. from J.D. Allen

September 5, 1836 to John V.N. from J.D. Allen

September 29, 1836 to John V.N. from Fred C Miller

December 30, 1836 to John V.N. from J.D. Allen

July 29, 1837 to John V.N. from W. Westwood Wright

February 20, 1837 to John V.N. from unsigned

 

Folder – Letters (principally between William and John Van N.)

 

September 29, 1831                 Wm. at Fort Edwards               to John at Horse’s Head

July 31, 1832                           Wm. at Fort Edwards               to John at Penn Yan, Yates

December 17, 1832                 Wm. at Fort Edwards               to John – N.Y.

April 8, 1833                           Wm. at Broadstreet’s Mansion, Albany, N.Y.

                                                                                                to ? at Penn Yan, Yates Co.

August 16, 1833                      Wm. at Fort Edwards               to John at Penn Yan, Yates Co.

September 17, 1833                 Wm. at Fort Edwards               to John at Penn Yan

December 10, 1833                 Wm. at Fort Edwards               to John at Penn Yan

February 4, 1834                     Wm. at Fort Edwards               to John at Penn Yan

June 5, 1834                            Wm. at Fort Edwards               to John at Clinton, Oneida

July 19, 1834                           Margaret V. N.                                     to

September 3, 1834                   Wm. at Albany, New York      to John at Clinton

1834                                        Wm. at Fort Edwards               to John

March 10, 1835                       Wm. at St. Louis, Missouri       to John McIntyre, New York City

April 10, 1835                                     Wm. at Peoria Illinois              from John at Clinton

May 10, 1835                          Wm. at Napers Settlement        from John at Clinton

June 4, 1835                            Wm. at Paw Paw, Illinois         to John at Clinton

June 9, 1835                            Wm. at Napers Settlement        from John at Clinton

June 17, 1835                          Wm. at Chicago, Illinois          to John at Clinton

June 27, 1835                          Wm. at ___ Illinois                  to John at Clinton

July 8, 1835                             Wm. at ____ Illinois                from John at Clinton

July 18, 1835                           Wm. V.N. at Fox River                        to John

September 25, 1835                 Wm. at Napers Settlement        to John at Clinton, Oneida

November 6, 1835                   Wm. at Napers Settlement        from John at Clinton

November 17, 1835                 Wm. at Paw Paw, Illinois         to John at Clinton

March 13, 1836                       Wm. at Paw Paw, Illinois         to John at Clinton

May 23, 1836                          Wm. at Sandusky, Kane Cty.   to John at Clinton

July 18, 1836                           Wm. at Fox River, Illinois        to John at Clinton

1836                                        Wm. at Fox River, Illinois        to John at Clinton

October 15, 1836                     Wm. at La Fox P.O., Illinois    to John at Clinton

November 9, 1836                   Meredith Mallory, Hammondsport, New York

                                                                                                to John at New York

                                                John Van Nortwick                                                                 Page 8

 

Folder – Letters (principally between William and John Van N.)

 

June 30, 1837                          Margaret Van Nortwick, La Fox, Illinois

                                                                                                to John, Mt. Morris, Livingston

November 18, 1837                 Wm. at La Fox, Illinois            to John at Mt. Morris

April 17, 1839                                     Wm. at Manchester                  to John at Mt. Morris

May 13, 1839                          Wm. _______ Illinois             to John at Mt. Morris

July 31, 1839                           Wm. at Kane County, Illinois to John at Mt. Morris

September 30, 1839                 Benjamin and Rachel (Van Nortwick) Smith and William and Martha                                                            (Flack) Van Nortwick, Fox River

                                                                                                to John at Mt. Morris, Livingston Cty, N.Y.   

December 17, 1839                 Wm. _____ Illinois                  to John at Mt. Morris

April 22, 1840                                     Wm. at Fox River, Kane Cty.   to John at Mt. Morris

1840                                        Wm. ____                                to John

February 2, 1841                     John at Mt. Morris                   to William at Kane County, Illinois

March 3, 1841                                     Wm., P.O. Batavia, Illinois      to John at Mt Morris

April 27, 1841                                     John at Mt. Morris                   to William at Batavia, Illinois

June 4, 1841                            Wm. at Batavia                                    to John at Mt. Morris

November 3, 1841                   James Rockwell and WM. Van N. at Batavia, Illinois

                                                                                                to John at Mt. Morris

January 17, 1842                     Wm. at Aurora, Illinois                        to John at Mt. Morris

January 31, 1842                     Wm. at Batavia, Illinois           to John at Mt. Morris, New York

April 12, 1842                                     agreement between J.M. Sleoper and John V.N. in Mt. Morris, New York

April 22, 1842                                     Wm. Mallory Van N. writing for father Wm. at Batavia to John

July 17, 1842                           Power of Attorney from John Van Nortwick of the Town of Mt. Morris,                                                        County of Livingston, New York to Meredith Mallory of the Town of                                                           Urbana County of _____ New York (Rec. in Book no. 2 Page 300, Kane                                                      County)

September 6, 1842                   Wm. at Batavia, Illinois           to John at Mt. Morris, New York

September 12, 1842                 Wm. at Batavia, Illinois           to John at Mt. Morris

December 12, 1842                 Wm. at Batavia, Illinois           to John at Mt. Morris

October 13, 1842 (date?)         Wm. at Batavia, Illinois           from ????

February 20, 1843                   Isaac Wilson at Batavia, Illinois to John at Albany City, New York

March 14, 1843                       Wm. at Batavia, Illinois           to John at Mt. Morris

May 4, 1843                            Wm. at Batavia, Illinois           to John at Mt. Morris

January 6, 1843 (or 1845?)     James Rockwell at Batavia, Illinois and William Van N.

                                                                                                to John at Mt. Morris

March 28, 1845                       John at Albany, New York      to Wm. In Illinois

July 2, 1845                             Wm. at Batavia, Illinois           to John at Mt. Morris

August 2, 1845                                    Wm. at Batavia, Illinois           to John at Mt. Morris

September 10, 1845                 John at Mt. Morris                   to Wm. at Batavia, Illinois

June 20, 1846                          John and Patti Mari (Mallory) Van Nortwick in Mt. Morris

                                                                                                to Meredith Mallory at Batavia, Illinois

March 7, 1847                                     _A. Bookes at W. Troy, N.Y.  to John at Batavia, Illinois

September 23, 1847                 John at Brooklyn, New York (Engineer’s Office)

                                                                                                to Wm. at

November 14, 1847                 John in New York                   to Wm. In Illinois

January 23, 1848                     John at Merchants Hotel, New York City

                                                                                                to Wm. In Illinois

 

 

                                                John Van Nortwick                                                                 Page 9

 

John Van Nortwick Account Books

 

Volume 1         c. 1828-1844                                       Miscellaneous accounts, including copy of C.B.                                                                                             Candys’ statement, notes and statements relating                                                                                 to Van Nortwick Fox River property, etc

 

Volume 2         1834-1836, January

 

Volume 3         1836, January-1937, March                 Includes some notes about Fox River property                                                                                                with pencil outline maps of the area

 

Volume 4         1837, c. June – 1839, c. November     Individual accounts, indexed

 

Volume 5         1837, October – 1838, July

 

Volume 6         1838, July – 1838, July

 

Volume 7         1839, August – 1840, December

 

Volume 8         1841, January-December                     Includes some notes on property, bridges, locks,                                                                                             etc. some mention Fox River

 

Volume 9         1842, January – 1843, August                         Some notes on other matters

 

Volume 10       1842, September – 1845, February      Some notes

 

Volume 11       1845, July – 1846, November                         Some notes on logs cut, 1847

 

Volume 12       1849-1850, January                             Individual accounts in rear of volume include                                                                                                 some figures for 1848

 

Volume 13       1850, January – 1851, January

 

Volume 14       1854, September – 1856, January       Some notes

 

Volume 15       1856, December – 1858, February      Some notes, including brief reference to Fox River                                                                             Valley

 

Volume 16       1858, February – 1859, May               Some notes

 

Volume 17       1859, June – 1861, April                     (Mention of George Smith & Co. among individual                                                                            accounts at end of this volume and other volumes)

 

Volume 18       1861, May – 1863, January

 

Volume 19       1863-1865                                           Individual accounts, indexed

 

Volume 20       1864, January – 1865, July

 

Volume 21       1865, July – 1967, April                      Some notes of schedules for land and lots, notes,                                                                               bonds and stocks

                                                John Van Nortwick                                                                 Page 10

 

John Van Nortwick Account Books

 

 

Volume 22       1867, January – 1868, April                Portion for January-April 1867, duplicate part of                                                                                preceding volume

 

Volume 23       1868, April – 1869, May

 

Volume 24       1869, May – 1870, March

 

Volume 25       1870, March-November

 

Volume 26       1853-1854                                           Memo of lands sold and purchased village property                                                                            (Batavia, Illinois?) memo of stocks owned

 

Volume 27       1859, January-April                             John Van Nortwick in account with Wilson and                                                                                              Arnold (general store) Batavia

 

Volume 28       1865-1865                                           Memo of income and taxes paid

 

Volume 29       1869-1870                                           John Van Nortwick in account with Ayer and Van                                                                              Nortwick, house expenditures (“Chicago villa”?)

 

William M. Van Nortwick – Memo

 

Volume 30       1870s-1890s                                        Memoranda of stock assignment estate, estate of                                                                                John Van Nortwick Stock assignments for the                                                                                                 following companies: Combd. Locks Paper Co.,                                                                                             Appleton Paper & Paper Co., Appleton                                                                                                           Manufacturing Co., Van Nortwick Paper Co.,                                                                                                 Western Paper Bag. Co., Green Bay and                                                                                              Mississippi Canal, Atlas National Bank, Bank of                                                                           Kaukauna, City National Bank of Appleton,                                                                                             Aurora Cotton Mill, Southern Paper, and others.

 

 

Citation

“John Van Nortwick Papers, 1831-1890,” Chronicling Illinois, accessed December 19, 2018, http://alplm-cdi.com/chroniclingillinois/items/show/652.